If you have hyperglycemia and it’s untreated for long periods of time, you can damage your nerves, blood vessels, tissues and organs. Damage to blood vessels can increase your risk of heart attack and stroke, and nerve damage may also lead to eye damage, kidney damage and non-healing wounds.
How does hyperglycemia cause diabetic ketoacidosis?
If you fail to treat hyperglycemia, a condition called ketoacidosis (diabetic coma) could occur. Ketoacidosis develops when your body doesn’t have enough insulin. Without insulin, your body can’t use glucose for fuel, so your body breaks down fats to use for energy.
When is hyperglycemia an emergency?
According to the American Academy of Family Physicians (AAFP), hyperglycemic hyperosmolar syndrome (HHS) occurs when blood sugar levels become dangerously high, usually above 600 mg/dl. This may happen with or without DKA, and it can be life-threatening.
Is hyperglycemia a complication of diabetes?
Prolonged hyperglycemia increases the risk of diabetes-related complications, such as kidney disease, eye disease, and neuropathy. Typical signs and symptoms of hyperglycemia include: frequent urination. increased thirst.
What causes chronic hyperglycemia?
The secondary causes of hyperglycemia include the following: Destruction of the pancreas from chronic pancreatitis, hemochromatosis, pancreatic cancer, and cystic fibrosis. Endocrine disorders that cause peripheral insulin resistance like Cushing syndrome, acromegaly, and pheochromocytoma.
What happens if you give too much glucose to a hypoglycemic patient?
Rapid or excessive administration can induce hyperosmolar syndrome, and prolonged use (especially when insulin levels are high) can lead to hypokalemia. After D50W treatment, IV dextrose 5% or 10% in water is used to maintain BG levels >100 mg/dL.
What is hyperglycemic hyperosmolar syndrome?
Diabetic hyperglycemic hyperosmolar syndrome (HHS) is a complication of type 2 diabetes. It involves extremely high blood sugar (glucose) level without the presence of ketones.
What is hyperglycemic shock?
If you have diabetes, dangerously high blood sugar (hyperglycemia) or dangerously low blood sugar (hypoglycemia) can lead to a diabetic coma. If you lapse into a diabetic coma, you’re alive — but you can’t awaken or respond purposefully to sights, sounds or other types of stimulation.
What is hyperglycemic crisis?
Background: Hyperglycemic crisis is a metabolic emergency associated with uncontrolled diabetes mellitus that may result in significant morbidity or death. Acute interventions are required to manage hypovolemia, acidemia, hyperglycemia, electrolyte abnormalities, and precipitating causes.
Is hyperglycemia a medical emergency?
Introduction. Hyperglycemia is a very common presentation in the emergency department. The presentation of hyperglycemia ranges from asymptomatic and benign in patients with mild to moderate uncomplicated hyperglycemia to life-threatening, i.e. diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) or hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state (HHS).
Why does hyperglycemia cause complications?
Hyperglycemia causes tissue damage through five major mechanisms: Increased flux of glucose and other sugars through the polyol pathway, increased intracellular formation of advanced glycation end-products (AGEs), increased expression of the receptor for advanced glycation end products and its activating ligands, …
What are the short term effects of hyperglycemia?
Hyperosmolar Hyperglycemic State
HHS can lead nausea, dehydration, confusion, fever and coma if your blood glucose is approaching a level of 40 mmol/l or more. As HHS can be very dangerous, it is important to seek medical advice if your blood glucose levels rise to very high blood sugar levels.
Is hyperglycemia long term or short term?
In the short term, hyperglycemia can cause serious side effects, and may even become life threatening. For example, one sign of dangerously high blood glucose is ketones in your urine. Ketones are acids your body makes when it burns fat instead of glucose for energy. They can build up to toxic levels in your body.
What happens during diabetic coma?
In a diabetic coma, you are unconscious and unable to respond to your environment. You are either suffering from high blood glucose (hyperglycemia) or low blood glucose (hypoglycemia). You need immediate medical attention if you go into a diabetic coma.