Why does polycythemia cause hypoglycemia?

Of the metabolic problems, the most commonly encountered is hypoglycemia (12-40%). In addition to cerebral blood flow, glucose carrying capacity also decreases in polycythemia. As a result plasma glucose concentration, especially venous one is lower than normal [9].

How does polycythemia cause hyperbilirubinemia?

Bilirubin: Measurement of serum bilirubin level is important, as many infants with polycythemia will have an increased red blood cell (RBC) mass which leads to an increased load of bilirubin precursors that can result in hyperbilirubinemia.

Why does polycythemia cause respiratory distress?

Respiratory distress. This is due to the elevated blood viscosity. The increased blood viscosity reduces pulmonary blood flow and results in cyanosis, tachypnea, vascular congestion and pulmonary hypertension.

Can polycythemia cause bradycardia?

Although PET is generally regarded to be safe fiats, it is not devoid of risks. Complications have been reported to vary between 0.5 and 3.3%. Many of these complications are transient, such as bradycardia, apnea, severe thrombocytopenia, hypocalcemia and hypokalemia.

What is newborn plethora?

neonatal plethora’ is described. This clinical disorder includes symptoms due both to. hypervolemia and/or hematocrit elevations caused by large transfusions of blood at birth.

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Why do IUGR babies have polycythemia?

Increased number of nucleated red blood cells in IUGR babies is a marker of intra-uterine hypoxia. The incidence of polycythemia increases with increasing severity of growth retardation11.

When does kernicterus occur?

In most cases, the syndrome characteristic of kernicterus develops by three to four years of age.

How is polycythemia caused?

It’s usually caused by a change in the JAK2 gene, which causes the bone marrow cells to produce too many red blood cells. The affected bone marrow cells can also develop into other cells found in the blood, which means that people with PV may also have abnormally high numbers of both platelets and white bloods cells.

Why do diabetic mothers get polycythemia in infants?

A central venous hemoglobin concentration greater than 20 g/dL or a hematocrit value greater than 65% (polycythemia) is not uncommon in infants of diabetic mothers and is related to glycemic control. Hyperglycemia is a powerful stimulus to fetal erythropoietin production, mediated by decreased fetal oxygen tension.

Why do babies of diabetic mothers have hypoglycemia?

An IDM is more likely to have periods of low blood sugar (hypoglycemia) shortly after birth, and during first few days of life. This is because the baby has been used to getting more sugar than needed from the mother. They have a higher insulin level than needed after birth. Insulin lowers the blood sugar.

How does polycythemia affect the cardiovascular system?

The extra red blood cells make your blood thicker than normal. As a result, blood clots can form more easily. These clots can block blood flow through your arteries and veins, which can cause a heart attack or stroke. Thicker blood also doesn’t flow as quickly to your body as normal blood.

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Can polycythemia affect your heart?

Polycythemia vera can be fatal if not diagnosed and treated. It can cause blood clots resulting in a heart attack, stroke, or pulmonary embolism. Liver and spleen enlargement are other possible complications. In some cases, in can transform into a condition resulting in bone marrow scarring (fibrosis) or leukemia.

Does polycythemia cause bleeding?

Sometimes polycythemia vera prompts your body to make extra platelets. They normally help your blood clot, but the extra ones in polycythemia vera don’t always work well. They prevent your blood from clotting like it should. That can make you bleed too easily.

What is infant mottling?

Mottling. Mottling occurs when the baby’s skin looks blue or pale and blotchy. There may also be a bluish marbled or weblike pattern on the baby’s skin. The parts of the skin that are not blotchy may be very pale (this is called pallor).

What is a bulging soft spot?

A tense or bulging fontanelle occurs when fluid builds up in the brain or the brain swells, causing increased pressure inside the skull. When the infant is crying, lying down, or vomiting, the fontanelles may look like they are bulging.

What is a Plethoric complexion?

Plethoric: Florid, red-faced. Persons with polycythemia vera commonly have a plethoric facial appearance.