Infants of diabetic mothers are prone to various neonatal adverse outcomes, including metabolic and hematologic disorders, respiratory distress, cardiac disorders and neurologic impairment due to perinatal asphyxia and birth traumas, among others.
Which is the most common birth defect in an infant of diabetic mother?
They followed 609 diabetic pregnancies and found that 3.6% of the women delivered infants with cardiovascular defects, the most common being transposition of great arteries, truncus arteriosus and tricuspid atresia. Janssen et al studied 1511 PGD cases, with congenital birth defects prevalence of 7.2%.
What are the risks of having a baby when you have diabetes?
Diabetes during pregnancy—including type 1, type 2, or gestational diabetes—can negatively affect the health of women and their babies. For women with type 1 or type 2 diabetes, high blood sugar around the time of conception increases babies’ risk of birth defects, stillbirth, and preterm birth.
What is the most common complication among infants of diabetic mothers that occurs shortly after birth?
An IDM is more likely to have periods of low blood sugar (hypoglycemia) shortly after birth, and during first few days of life. This is because the baby has been used to getting more sugar than needed from the mother.
What is Syndrome of infant of a diabetic mother?
Definition. An infant that was born to a mother who persistently had high glucose blood levels during pregnancy. The infants of diabetic mothers are large for their gestational age and may develop hypoglycemic episodes soon after birth. [
What causes gestational diabetes in pregnancy?
During pregnancy, your placenta makes hormones that cause glucose to build up in your blood. Usually, your pancreas can send out enough insulin to handle it. But if your body can’t make enough insulin or stops using insulin as it should, your blood sugar levels rise, and you get gestational diabetes.
What is the most common complication for which a nurse must monitor preterm infants?
Additionally, about 86.1% of the nurses considered respiratory distress syndrome as a common complication of prematurity, and 61.1% of them stated neonatal septicemia as a common complication of prematurity (Table 2).
Which of the following can be risk factors for diabetes?
Risk factors for prediabetes and type 2 diabetes
- Weight. The more fatty tissue you have, the more resistant your cells become to insulin.
- Inactivity. The less active you are, the greater your risk. …
- Family history. …
- Race or ethnicity. …
- Age. …
- Gestational diabetes. …
- Polycystic ovary syndrome. …
- High blood pressure.
Is it safe to get pregnant with diabetes?
A healthy pregnancy is certainly possible with diabetes, but it takes extra care. If you plan to get pregnant with type 2 diabetes, see your doctor first. You need a plan to keep your blood sugar level under control — and during pregnancy the goals for blood sugars are very different.
Why are infants of diabetic mothers at risk for hyperbilirubinemia?
The causes of hyperbilirubinemia in infants of diabetic mothers are multiple, but prematurity and polycythemia are the primary contributing factors. Increased destruction of red blood cells contributes to the risk of jaundice and kernicterus.
Which is a risk factor for neonatal complications or death to mothers with gestational diabetes?
Conclusion: SGA birthweight is an important risk factor for neonatal complications or death among neonates born to mothers with GDM.
Why do infants of diabetic mothers have cardiomyopathy?
In infants of diabetic mothers, HCM is thought to arise from the effects of excess insulin. The finding of a very similar HCM in infants with congenital hyperinsulinism is consistent with a causal role for fetal hyperinsulinaemia in this cardiac abnormality.
Do diabetics have diabetic babies?
Babies born to women with diabetes are at risk of being born larger than average, or with a birth defect. They may also be born prematurely or even stillborn. They are also at risk of developing type 2 diabetes in the long term. These risks are greatly reduced if you keep your blood sugars under good control.
Why do infants of diabetic mothers have polycythemia?
Polycythaemia is an important problem that is observed in some infants born to diabetic mothers: fetal hyperinsulinaemia and elevated Epo levels, due to intrauterine chronic hypoxia, may cause polycythaemia in these infants.