Type 1 diabetes is a condition in which your immune system destroys insulin-making cells in your pancreas. These are called beta cells.
What cells does type 1 diabetes destroy?
Type 1 diabetes results from the destruction of insulin-producing pancreatic beta cells by a beta cell-specific autoimmune process. Beta cell autoantigens, macrophages, dendritic cells, B lymphocytes, and T lymphocytes have been shown to be involved in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diabetes.
What is damaged in type 1 diabetes?
Over time, type 1 diabetes complications can affect major organs in your body, including heart, blood vessels, nerves, eyes and kidneys. Maintaining a normal blood sugar level can dramatically reduce the risk of many complications. Eventually, diabetes complications may be disabling or even life-threatening.
Does type 1 diabetes destroy alpha cells?
Alpha cells normally reside alongside beta cells in the pancreas and secrete a hormone called glucagon, which works opposite to insulin to regulate the levels of sugar in the blood. Alpha cells are not attacked by the autoimmune processes that destroy beta cells and causes type 1 diabetes.
Does type 1 diabetes destroy insulin?
What Happens in Type 1 Diabetes? In type 1 diabetes, the body’s immune system attacks and destroys the cells in the pancreas that make insulin. So the body can’t make insulin anymore.
How is insulin destroyed?
The kidney is the major site of insulin clearance from the systemic circulation (42), removing approximately 50% of peripheral insulin. In addition, the kidney removes 50% of circulating proinsulin and 70% of c-peptide by glomerular filtration (43). Insulin analogs are also cleared by kidney (44).
Why does type 1 diabetes destroy beta cells?
Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disease. The body does not recognize its own insulin-producing beta cells , so the immune system attacks and destroys them as if they were invaders. The body needs insulin to metabolize sugar and turn it into energy. However, of these beta cells, some manage to survive.
What is the life expectancy of someone with type 1 diabetes?
The investigators found that men with type 1 diabetes had an average life expectancy of about 66 years, compared with 77 years among men without it. Women with type 1 diabetes had an average life expectancy of about 68 years, compared with 81 years for those without the disease, the study found.
What triggers type 1 diabetes?
Type 1 diabetes is thought to be caused by an autoimmune reaction (the body attacks itself by mistake) that destroys the cells in the pancreas that make insulin, called beta cells. This process can go on for months or years before any symptoms appear.
What happens if you don’t control type 1 diabetes?
Type 1 diabetes is when your pancreas doesn’t produce any insulin at all. If left untreated, it can cause atherosclerosis (narrowing of blood vessels), heart disease, stroke, and eye and kidney diseases.
Does type 1 diabetes destroy all beta cells?
Type 1 diabetes (T1D) results from destruction of pancreatic beta cells by T cells of the immune system. Despite improvements in insulin analogs and continuous blood glucose level monitoring, there is no cure for T1D, and some individuals develop life-threatening complications.
What happens if beta cells are destroyed?
When the beta cells die, the body no longer can produce enough insulin to regulate blood-glucose levels, and this can lead to serious health complications, even death, without treatment. It is generally understood that inflammation plays a vital role in beta-cell destruction.
How does type 1 diabetes affect cells?
In most people with type 1 diabetes, the body’s immune system, which normally fights infection, attacks and destroys the cells in the pancreas that make insulin. As a result, your pancreas stops making insulin. Without insulin, glucose can’t get into your cells and your blood glucose rises above normal.
Can you get type 1 diabetes as a teenager?
People can develop type 1 diabetes at any age, from early childhood to adulthood, but the average age at diagnosis is 13 years. An estimated 85% of all type 1 diagnoses take place in people aged under 20 years.
Does type 1 diabetes happen suddenly?
Type 1 diabetes can come on over time or suddenly. Sometimes, kids don’t have diabetes symptoms yet and the condition is discovered when blood or urine tests are done for another reason.
Who is most affected by type 1 diabetes?
Type 1 diabetes is seen most often in children and young adults, although the disease can occur at any age. People with Type 1 disease are often thin to normal weight and often lose weight prior to diagnosis. Type 1 diabetes accounts for about 5-10% of all diagnosed cases of diabetes.