What are the major micro and macrovascular complications of diabetes mellitus?

Diabetes is a disease that is strongly associated with both microvascular and macrovascular complications, including retinopathy, nephropathy, and neuropathy (microvascular) and ischemic heart disease, peripheral vascular disease, and cerebrovascular disease (macrovascular), resulting in organ and tissue damage in …

What are microvascular and macrovascular complications?

Generally, the injurious effects of hyperglycemia are separated into macrovascular complications (coronary artery disease, peripheral arterial disease, and stroke) and microvascular complications (diabetic nephropathy, neuropathy, and retinopathy).

What are diabetic microvascular complications?

Microvascular complications of diabetes are those long-term complications that affect small blood vessels. These typically include retinopathy, nephropathy, and neuropathy. Retinopathy is divided into two main categories: Nonproliferative retinopathy and proliferative retinopathy.

What causes the chronic microvascular and macrovascular complications of diabetes mellitus?

The chronic complications are mainly the result of longstanding damage to blood vessels. These complications are grouped as microvascular due to basement membrane thickening or macrovascular due to accelerated atherosclerosis. The major microvascular complications are diabetic retinopathy, nephropathy, and neuropathy.

What are two major complications of diabetes mellitus?

Potential complications of diabetes and frequent comorbidities include:

  • Heart and blood vessel disease. …
  • Nerve damage (neuropathy) in limbs. …
  • Other nerve damage. …
  • Kidney disease. …
  • Eye damage. …
  • Skin conditions. …
  • Slow healing. …
  • Hearing impairment.
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What is a risk factor associated with macrovascular complications of diabetes mellitus?

For macrovascular complications, the most important factors were in men, age (OR 1.09, p < 0.001) and hypertension (OR 4.85, p < 0.001) and in women, age (OR 1.08, p < 0.001) and duration of diabetes (OR 1.08, p < 0.01).

What is micro vascular disease?

Microvascular dysfunction is a type of non-obstructive coronary artery disease that causes the small blood vessels feeding the heart muscle to not work as they should. This condition tends to affect more women than men and can cause chronic chest pain.

What are the 4 most common leading complications of diabetes?

Here are the four most common complications associated with diabetes:

  1. Heart disease. A diabetic has twice a non-diabetic’s likelihood of dying of heart disease, including stroke. …
  2. Foot problems. Diabetes reduces circulation. …
  3. Kidney disease. Diabetes is the foremost cause of kidney disease. …
  4. Eye problems.

What are macrovascular complications?

Results: Macrovascular complications of T2DM include coronary heart disease, cardiomyopathy, arrhythmias and sudden death, cerebrovascular disease and peripheral artery disease. Cardiovascular disease is the primary cause of death in diabetic patients.

What does HbA1c measure?

The A1C test—also known as the hemoglobin A1C or HbA1c test—is a simple blood test that measures your average blood sugar levels over the past 3 months. It’s one of the commonly used tests to diagnose prediabetes and diabetes, and is also the main test to help you and your health care team manage your diabetes.

What are the 3 types of diabetes mellitus?

There are three main types of diabetes: type 1, type 2, and gestational diabetes (diabetes while pregnant).

  • Type 1 Diabetes. Type 1 diabetes is thought to be caused by an autoimmune reaction (the body attacks itself by mistake) that stops your body from making insulin. …
  • Type 2 Diabetes. …
  • Gestational Diabetes.
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What is the number one complication of diabetes?

Nerve damage (neuropathy): One of the most common diabetes complications, nerve damage can cause numbness and pain. Nerve damage most often affects the feet and legs but can also affect your digestion, blood vessels, and heart.

What are the 4 types of diabetes?

All types of diabetes cause high blood sugar because your body has trouble producing insulin, a hormone that moves and stores sugar.

Specific diabetes due to other causes

  • Mature onset diabetes of the young (MODY). …
  • Neonatal diabetes. …
  • Diabetes caused by other conditions. …
  • Steroid-induced diabetes.