Question: Why does pituitary surgery cause diabetes insipidus?

Diabetes insipidus (DI) is a common complication following pituitary surgery and can be transient or permanent. Neurogenic DI occurs following injury to the magnocellular neurons in the hypothalamus that produce and transport arginine vasopressin (AVP) and form the hypothalamo-hypophyseal tract.

How does the pituitary gland cause diabetes insipidus?

Diabetes insipidus is caused by problems with a chemical called vasopressin (AVP), which is also known as antidiuretic hormone (ADH). AVP is produced by the hypothalamus and stored in the pituitary gland until needed. The hypothalamus is an area of the brain that controls mood and appetite.

How common is diabetes insipidus after pituitary surgery?

Diabetes insipidus is a common complication of pituitary surgery, occurring acutely in 18-30% of operations. Most patients recover full posterior function but a minority sustain sufficient damage to vasopressin-secreting neurons to develop permanent diabetes insipidus.

How does hypopituitarism cause diabetes insipidus?

Diabetes insipidus (DI) is caused by a problem with either the production, or action, of the hormone vasopressin (AVP). If you have DI your kidneys are unable to retain water. This leads to the production of large volumes of urine and, in turn, greatly increased thirst.

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How long does DI last after pituitary surgery?

According to most case series, DI is the most common complication after pituitary surgery. It occurs in approximately 10–30% of patients undergoing pituitary surgery, but it persists long term only in 2–7%,4,28,29 with approximately 50% of patients remitting in 1 week and about 80% in 3 months.

What hormone is involved in diabetes insipidus?

Diabetes insipidus is usually caused by problems with a hormone called vasopressin that helps your kidneys balance the amount of fluid in your body. Problems with a part of your brain that controls thirst can also cause diabetes insipidus.

How can diabetes insipidus be prevented?

Your diabetes insipidus could be caused by kidney problems. If so, your doctor may recommend that you reduce salt in your diet. You’ll also need to drink enough water to avoid dehydration. Medicines like hydrochlorothiazide (a water pill) may also help.

Can the pituitary gland be removed?

Fast facts on hypophysectomy

It is the surgical removal of the pituitary gland. The procedure may be done for cancerous or noncancerous tumors. It is a risky procedure, with a long recovery time. The gland may be destroyed during surgery, leaving the endocrine system without regulation.

What does your pituitary gland control?

The pituitary gland is called the ‘master gland’ as the hormones it produces control so many different processes in the body. … Through secretion of its hormones, the pituitary gland controls metabolism, growth, sexual maturation, reproduction, blood pressure and many other vital physical functions and processes.

What is DI in surgery?

The Double Incision Top Surgery procedure is the most widely-used technique and is ideal for those who are medium to large chested. During this procedure, the skin on the chest is opened along two horizontal incisions, at the top and bottom of the pectoral muscle. (The muscle itself is not touched.)

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Is diabetes insipidus related to pituitary?

central diabetes insipidus — insufficient production or secretion of ADH; can be a result of damage to the pituitary gland caused by head injuries, genetic disorders, tumors, surgery, and other diseases.

Can drinking too much water cause diabetes insipidus?

Dipsogenic diabetes insipidus is not related to ADH, and is caused by drinking too much fluid. It occurs when the mechanism that makes a person feel thirsty is damaged, so the person feels thirsty even when fluid isn’t needed.

How successful is pituitary surgery?

The success rate is about 60% with growth-hormone secreting macroadenomas [2]. Some pituitary tumors remain surgically incurable due to invasion of the cavernous sinuses and other important structures.

Can you live a normal life with a pituitary tumor?

In general, when a pituitary tumor is not cured, people live out their lives but may have to deal with problems caused by the tumor or its treatment, such as vision problems or hormone levels that are too high or too low.

What is Sheehan syndrome?

Sheehan’s syndrome is a condition that affects women who lose a life-threatening amount of blood in childbirth or who have severe low blood pressure during or after childbirth, which can deprive the body of oxygen. This lack of oxygen that causes damage to the pituitary gland is known as Sheehan’s syndrome.