Diabetes insipidus (DI) is a common complication following pituitary surgery and can be transient or permanent. Neurogenic DI occurs following injury to the magnocellular neurons in the hypothalamus that produce and transport arginine vasopressin (AVP) and form the hypothalamo-hypophyseal tract.
How common is diabetes insipidus after pituitary surgery?
Diabetes insipidus is a common complication of pituitary surgery, occurring acutely in 18-30% of operations. Most patients recover full posterior function but a minority sustain sufficient damage to vasopressin-secreting neurons to develop permanent diabetes insipidus.
When the level of water in your body decreases, your pituitary gland releases AVP to conserve water and stop the production of urine. In diabetes insipidus, AVP fails to properly regulate your body’s level of water, and allows too much urine to be produced and passed from your body.
How long does diabetes insipidus last after pituitary surgery?
Transient DI typically occurs within 24–48 h after surgery and resolves during the next couple of days. It is most likely caused by mild and reversible injury to the pituitary stalk or posterior pituitary lobe [18, 39].
What is postoperative diabetes insipidus?
Conclusions: To improve reliability and comparability we propose the following definition for postoperative DI: polyuria (urine production > 300 ml/hour for 3 h) accompanied by a urine specific gravity (USG) < 1.005, and at least one of the following symptoms: excessive thirst, serum osmolality > 300 mosmol/kg, or …
How long is the hospital stay after pituitary surgery?
Recovery Time at the Hospital
A typical hospital admission for patients undergoing pituitary tumor surgery lasts 2 to 3 days; overnight in the intensive care unit (ICU) and 1or 2 more on the nursing floor.
Can the pituitary gland be removed?
Fast facts on hypophysectomy
It is the surgical removal of the pituitary gland. The procedure may be done for cancerous or noncancerous tumors. It is a risky procedure, with a long recovery time. The gland may be destroyed during surgery, leaving the endocrine system without regulation.
What happens if diabetes insipidus is left untreated?
Without treatment, diabetes insipidus can cause dehydration and, eventually, coma due to concentration of salts in the blood, particularly sodium.
Can diabetes insipidus be temporary?
Some cases of diabetes insipidus are mild, and may be temporary, like if you recently had pituitary surgery. In this case, your doctor will recommend maintaining a proper intake of water throughout the day. Medication is a treatment option for more severe cases.
Can drinking too much water cause diabetes insipidus?
Dipsogenic diabetes insipidus is not related to ADH, and is caused by drinking too much fluid. It occurs when the mechanism that makes a person feel thirsty is damaged, so the person feels thirsty even when fluid isn’t needed.
What are the complications of diabetes insipidus?
The 2 main complications of diabetes insipidus are dehydration and an electrolyte imbalance. Complications are more likely if the condition goes undiagnosed or is poorly controlled.
What tests are done for diabetes insipidus?
Tests used to diagnose diabetes insipidus include:
- Water deprivation test. While being monitored by a doctor and health care team, you’ll be asked to stop drinking fluids for several hours. …
- Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). An MRI can look for abnormalities in or near the pituitary gland. …
- Genetic screening.
What does your pituitary gland control?
The pituitary gland is called the ‘master gland’ as the hormones it produces control so many different processes in the body. … Through secretion of its hormones, the pituitary gland controls metabolism, growth, sexual maturation, reproduction, blood pressure and many other vital physical functions and processes.
How do you access the pituitary gland?
To reach the pituitary, the surgeon opens the boney walls of the sphenoid sinus with small surgical chisels, drills, or other instruments depending on the thickness of the bone and sinus. Small tools and a microscope are used to remove the tumor.
What do you mean by polyuria?
Polyuria (Excessive Urine Production)