How does polycythemia cause hypoglycemia?

Of the metabolic problems, the most commonly encountered is hypoglycemia (12-40%). In addition to cerebral blood flow, glucose carrying capacity also decreases in polycythemia. As a result plasma glucose concentration, especially venous one is lower than normal [9].

Why does polycythemia cause hyperbilirubinemia?

Bilirubin: Measurement of serum bilirubin level is important, as many infants with polycythemia will have an increased red blood cell (RBC) mass which leads to an increased load of bilirubin precursors that can result in hyperbilirubinemia.

How does polycythemia cause respiratory distress?

Respiratory distress. This is due to the elevated blood viscosity. The increased blood viscosity reduces pulmonary blood flow and results in cyanosis, tachypnea, vascular congestion and pulmonary hypertension.

What is the physiologic cause of polycythemia?

Secondary polycythemia most often develops as a response to chronic hypoxemia, which triggers increased production of erythropoietin by the kidneys. The most common causes of secondary polycythemia include obstructive sleep apnea, obesity hypoventilation syndrome, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).

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What is newborn plethora?

neonatal plethora’ is described. This clinical disorder includes symptoms due both to. hypervolemia and/or hematocrit elevations caused by large transfusions of blood at birth.

Why do IUGR babies have polycythemia?

Increased number of nucleated red blood cells in IUGR babies is a marker of intra-uterine hypoxia. The incidence of polycythemia increases with increasing severity of growth retardation11.

When does kernicterus occur?

In most cases, the syndrome characteristic of kernicterus develops by three to four years of age.

Why do post term babies have polycythemia?

Neonatal polycythaemia usually represents the normal foetal adaptation to hypoxemia instead of genuine haemopoietic stem cell abnormalities. The rate of polycythaemia in healthy term neonates has been accounted to be 0.4% to 5% [2,3]. Venous haematocrit level is utilised as a surrogate marker for viscosity.

What are the signs and symptoms of polycythemia?

What are the symptoms of polycythemia vera?

  • Lack of energy (fatigue) or weakness.
  • Headache.
  • Dizziness.
  • Shortness of breath and trouble breathing while lying down.
  • Vision problems, such as double vision, blurred vision, and blind spots.
  • Inability to concentrate.
  • Night sweats.
  • Face and becomes red and warm (flushed)

Why do diabetic mothers get polycythemia in infants?

A central venous hemoglobin concentration greater than 20 g/dL or a hematocrit value greater than 65% (polycythemia) is not uncommon in infants of diabetic mothers and is related to glycemic control. Hyperglycemia is a powerful stimulus to fetal erythropoietin production, mediated by decreased fetal oxygen tension.

How does HB and/or hematocrit change in polycythemia?

Polycythemia, or erythrocytosis, refers to an increase in the absolute red blood cell (RBC) mass in the body. In practice, this is reflected by an increase in hemoglobin levels, or hematocrit, over what is considered physiologic for that age and gender.

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What is the most common cause of polycythemia?

Hypoxia from long standing (chronic) lung disease and smoking are common causes of polycythemia. Therefore, smoking can be a significant risk factor for polycythemia. Chronic carbon monoxide (CO) exposure can also be a risk factor for polycythemia.

How does polycythemia affect the circulatory system?

polycythemia, abnormal increase in red blood cells (erythrocytes) and hemoglobin in the circulation, a situation that results in thickened blood, retarded flow, and an increased danger of clot formation within the circulatory system.

What is infant mottling?

Mottling. Mottling occurs when the baby’s skin looks blue or pale and blotchy. There may also be a bluish marbled or weblike pattern on the baby’s skin. The parts of the skin that are not blotchy may be very pale (this is called pallor).

What is a bulging soft spot?

A tense or bulging fontanelle occurs when fluid builds up in the brain or the brain swells, causing increased pressure inside the skull. When the infant is crying, lying down, or vomiting, the fontanelles may look like they are bulging.

What is a Plethoric complexion?

Plethoric: Florid, red-faced. Persons with polycythemia vera commonly have a plethoric facial appearance.