Diabetes is induced in mice by using streptozotocin (STZ), a compound that has a preferential toxicity toward pancreatic β cells.
How do you induce type 2 diabetes in mice?
To induce diabetes, animals of both sexes received daily intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of STZ for 5 consecutive days at 55 mg/kg BW (a dose that is known to induce diabetes in male mice) or for females, 75 mg/kg BW of STZ.
How do mice get diabetes?
A number of different mechanisms can cause this deficiency in animal models, including chemical ablation of the beta cells and breeding rodents that spontaneously develop autoimmune diabetes. Insulin resistance is the characteristic feature of type 2 diabetes.
How do you induce diabetes mellitus in rats?
Type 1 diabetes can be induced in rodents by a single STZ injection,9,10 while type 2 diabetes can be induced by at least three approaches, which include STZ injection after administration of nicotinamide,11,12 high fat diet (HFD) feeding followed by a low-dose STZ injection,13 and STZ injection during the neonatal …
How does alloxan induce diabetes in rats?
Anti-diabetic Activity in Alloxan Induced Diabetes Model
Diabetes was induced in 80 male albino rats by injecting 120 mg/kg of Alloxan monohydrate intra-peritoneally dissolved in 0.9% w/v cold normal saline to overnight-fasted rats (12 h).
When is a mouse diabetic?
Non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice are a well recognized model of spontaneous type 1 diabetes and have a long prodrome of pre-diabetes from 6–8 weeks of age prior, progressing to spontaneous diabetes at approximately 18–24 weeks of age, the stage where islet destruction sufficient for hyperglycemia occurs.
When do NOD mice develop diabetes?
Based on data from the NOD/ShiLtJ strain, NOD mice maintained under SPF conditions develop insulitis between 2 and 4 weeks in females and within 5 to 7 weeks in males. Diabetes develops in 90% to 100% of females by 30 weeks; in contrast, only 50% to 80% of males.
Do mice have diabetes?
Diabetic phenotypes in mice are highly sensitive to distress. Stress levels may interfere with gaining body weight and developing hyperglycemia (this is extremely important for lep ob/ob and lepr db/db mice models of Type 2 diabetes).
Can pet rats get diabetes?
Around 90% of rats develop diabetes between 8 and 16 weeks of age. The diabetic phenotype is quite severe, and the rats require insulin therapy for survival.
Can mice have type 2 diabetes?
The ob/ob mouse model is a monogenic model of type 2 diabetes. The animals are homozygous for a mutation in leptin and develop obesity, hyperphagia, glucose intolerance, insulin resistance and transient hyperglycemia. With age, hyperglycemia wanes in these mice due to compensating hyperinsulinemia.
How do you inject streptozotocin in rats?
Inject an equal volume of citrate buffer (pH 4.5) intraperitoneally into the control animals. This dose of STZ should produce a stable hyperglycemia in the high-fat diet rat for at least 130 days. The dose of STZ is critical.
Can alloxan induced type 2 diabetes in rats?
2. Alloxan-induced diabetes. Alloxan-induced diabetes is a form of insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus that occurs as a result of alloxan administration or injection to animals , . It has been successfully induced in a variety of animal species; rabbits, mice, rats, monkeys, cats and dogs , .
Why does streptozotocin induce diabetes?
Following its uptake into the beta cells, streptozotocin is split into its glucose and methylnitrosourea moiety. Owing to its alkylating properties, the latter modifies biological macromolecules, fragments DNA and destroys the beta cells, causing a state of insulin-dependent diabetes.
What is the difference between alloxan and streptozotocin?
As a thiol reagent, alloxan also selectively inhibits glucose-induced insulin secretion through its ability to inhibit the beta cell glucose sensor glucokinase. Following its uptake into the beta cells, streptozotocin is split into its glucose and methylnitrosourea moiety.
Where is streptozotocin found?
Streptozotocin (STZ) is a naturally occurring chemical derived from Streptomyces achromogenes that is particularly toxic to the insulin-producing beta cells of the pancreas in mammals.
How does hyperglycemia occur?
What is hyperglycemia? Hyperglycemia, or high blood glucose, occurs when there is too much sugar in the blood. This happens when your body has too little insulin (the hormone that transports glucose into the blood), or if your body can’t use insulin properly. The condition is most often linked with diabetes.