Type 2 diabetes mellitus is associated with a marked increase in the risk of atherosclerotic diseases, including coronary heart disease, peripheral arterial disease, and cerebrovascular disease. Insulin resistance is a key factor in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes mellitus.
Why does Type 1 diabetes cause atherosclerosis?
Scientists have known that diabetes leads to atherosclerosis. The study shows that this is associated with increased circulating levels of inflammatory white blood cells (WBCs), which contribute to the build-up of plaque.
How does diabetes increase the risk of atherosclerosis?
Researchers have discovered how diabetes, by driving inflammation and slowing blood flow, dramatically accelerates atherosclerosis. Experts once believed that atherosclerosis, or hardening of the arteries, developed when too much cholesterol clogged arteries with fatty deposits called plaques.
What are 3 risk factors for type 2 diabetes?
Risk Factors for Type 2 Diabetes
- are overweight or obese.
- are age 45 or older.
- have a family history of diabetes.
- are African American, Alaska Native, American Indian, Asian American, Hispanic/Latino, Native Hawaiian, or Pacific Islander.
- have high blood pressure.
What is the most powerful risk factor for type 2 diabetes?
Substantial epidemiological studies have shown that obesity is the most important risk factor for T2DM, which may influence the development of insulin resistance and disease progression 42.
Why diabetes affect arteries?
The sugar, also called glucose, damages the inner linings of both big and small arteries. The arteries respond by layering on plaque, a substance that fills in the arteries so that oxygen-rich blood has a hard time getting through to the eyes, kidneys, legs and feet.
What causes atherosclerosis?
Atherosclerosis is thickening or hardening of the arteries caused by a buildup of plaque in the inner lining of an artery. Risk factors may include high cholesterol and triglyceride levels, high blood pressure, smoking, diabetes, obesity, physical activity, and eating saturated fats.
What are Jemima’s risk factors for type 2 diabetes?
Factors that may increase your risk of type 2 diabetes include:
- Weight. Being overweight or obese is a main risk.
- Fat distribution. Storing fat mainly in your abdomen — rather than your hips and thighs — indicates a greater risk. …
- Inactivity. …
- Family history. …
- Race and ethnicity. …
- Blood lipid levels. …
- Age. …
How does type 1 diabetes affect the cardiovascular system?
In some people with type 1 diabetes, blood glucose swings that can cause repeated injury to the heart can, in turn, cause the body’s own immune system to attack the heart, much as it attacks the pancreas. This process is called cardiac autoimmunity .
How does type 2 diabetes cause cardiovascular disease?
Over time, high blood sugar can damage blood vessels and the nerves that control your heart. People with diabetes are also more likely to have other conditions that raise the risk for heart disease: High blood pressure increases the force of blood through your arteries and can damage artery walls.
Is diabetes mellitus type 1 or type 2?
Chronic diabetes conditions include type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes. Potentially reversible diabetes conditions include prediabetes and gestational diabetes. Prediabetes occurs when your blood sugar levels are higher than normal, but not high enough to be classified as diabetes.
Who is susceptible to diabetes?
You are more likely to develop type 2 diabetes if you are age 45 or older, have a family history of diabetes, or are overweight or obese. Diabetes is more common in people who are African American, Hispanic/Latino, American Indian, Asian American, or Pacific Islander.
Who is most at risk for type 1 diabetes?
In the United States, Caucasians seem to be more susceptible to type 1 than African-Americans and Hispanic-Americans. Chinese people have a lower risk of developing type 1, as do people in South America. Geography: It seems that people who live in northern climates are at a higher risk for developing type 1 diabetes.
What is type 2 diabetes pathophysiology?
The pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes mellitus is characterized by peripheral insulin resistance, impaired regulation of hepatic glucose production, and declining β-cell function, eventually leading toβ -cell failure.
What is a major risk factor for diabetes mellitus?
Major risk factors for type 2 diabetes include obesity, physical inactivity, unhealthy diet, hyperglycemia, stress, and chronic inflammation.