Hyperglycemia-induced oxidative stress induces endothelial dysfunction that plays a central role in the pathogenesis of micro- and macro-vascular diseases. It may also increase pro-inflammatory and pro-coagulant factors expression, induce apoptosis and impair nitric oxide release.
Does glucose cause oxidative stress?
β cells and endothelium are insulin-independent tissues. Glucose and FFA overload in these cells and cause oxidative stress, which in turn induces a dysfunction of both β cells and endothelium.
What induces oxidative stress?
Oxidative stress can occur when there is an imbalance of free radicals and antioxidants in the body. The body’s cells produce free radicals during normal metabolic processes. However, cells also produce antioxidants that neutralize these free radicals.
Does hyperglycemia cause oxidative stress in the diabetic rat retina?
Diabetes, being a metabolic disease dysregulates a large number of metabolites and factors. However, among those altered metabolites, hyperglycemia is considered as the major factor to cause an increase in oxidative stress that initiates the pathophysiology of retinal damage leading to diabetic retinopathy.
Can Type 2 diabetes cause oxidative stress?
Chronic hyperglycaemia is seen as a principal factor in promoting the development of micro-vascular and macro-vascular complications in type 2 diabetes and hyperglycaemia is known to be responsible for the damage of DNA, lipids and proteins and the degree of damage has been linked to the degree of hyperglycaemic- …
Why does hyperglycemia cause complications?
Hyperglycemia causes tissue damage through five major mechanisms: Increased flux of glucose and other sugars through the polyol pathway, increased intracellular formation of advanced glycation end-products (AGEs), increased expression of the receptor for advanced glycation end products and its activating ligands, …
How does hyperglycemia cause Ros?
Hyperglycemia induces ROS through activation of the glycation reaction and electron transport chain in mitochondria.
What drugs cause oxidative stress?
Hence, the CellROX®-positive anticancer drugs, actinomycin D, doxorubicin, mitomycin C, carmofur, mercaptopurine, camptothecin, paclitaxel, vinblastine, and vinorelbine, ultimately induce oxidative stress in the cells and may cause side effects in cancer patients.
Can oxidative stress be reversed?
(2003) have shown that oxidative stress is associated with age-related cognitive deficits, which are reversed by treatment with ROS scavengers.
Can stress cause oxidative stress?
It is thus suggested that psychological stress is associated with increased oxidant production and oxidative damage, and thus long-term exposure to psychological stressors may enhance the risk of many diseases (5,9).
What is intracellular hypoglycemia?
The intracellular hypoglycemia causes glucogenesis and gluconeogenesis that leads to fats breakdown (causing diabetic ketoacidosis) and decreases protein synthesis and gamma globulins (causing cachexia, polyphagia, and impaired wound healing), while the extracellular hyperglycemia leads to hyperglycemic coma and …
What is oxidative stress in simple terms?
Overview. Oxidative stress is an imbalance between free radicals and antioxidants in your body. Free radicals are oxygen-containing molecules with an uneven number of electrons. The uneven number allows them to easily react with other molecules.
How does oxidative stress cause atherosclerosis?
Oxidative stress, characterised by an increased production of free oxygen radicals, represents one of the basic pathogenetic processes of atherosclerosis and is closely related to endothelial dysfunction and promotes vascular inflammatory response.