When treating diabetic foot ulcers it is important to be aware of the natural history of the diabetic foot, which can be divided into five stages: stage 1, a normal foot; stage 2, a high risk foot; stage 3, an ulcerated foot; stage 4, an infected foot; and stage 5, a necrotic foot.
How do you classify a diabetic foot ulcer?
The most widely accepted classification system for diabetic foot ulcers and lesions is the Wagner ulcer classification system, which is based on the depth of penetration, the presence of osteomyelitis or gangrene, and the extent of tissue necrosis (Table 2).
What is a grade 3 foot ulcer?
Grade 3: Deep ulcer with abscess or Osteomyelitis. Grade 4: Gangrene to portion of forefoot. Grade 5: Extensive gangrene of foot.
How does a diabetic foot ulcer start?
How Do Diabetic Foot Ulcers Form? Ulcers form due to a combination of factors, such as lack of feeling in the foot, poor circulation, foot deformities, irritation (such as friction or pressure), and trauma, as well as duration of diabetes.
What is a grade 2 diabetic foot ulcer?
Grade 2 wounds penetrate to tendon or capsule, but the bone and joints are not involved. Grade 3 wounds penetrate to bone or into a joint. Each wound grade is comprised of 4 stages: clean wounds (A), nonischemic infected wounds (B), ischemic wounds (C), and infected ischemic wounds (D).
What is a Wagner grade 4 diabetic foot ulcer?
The Wagner system assesses ulcer depth and the presence of osteomyelitis or gangrene by using the following grades: grade 0 (pre-or postulcerative lesion), grade 1 (partial/full thickness ulcer), grade 2 (probing to tendon or capsule), grade 3 (deep with osteitis), grade 4 (partial foot gangrene), and grade 5 (whole …
What is a grade 4 ulcer?
Grade 4 pressure ulcers. Step 1: identification. A grade 4 pressure ulcer has extensive destruction, tissue necrosis or damage to muscle, bone or supporting structures with or without full-thickness skin loss (EPUAP, 2003) (Figure 5).
What does a healing foot ulcer look like?
An ulcer on the foot looks like a red sore, most commonly found on the ball of the foot or under the big toe. If the sore gets infected, you will see pus and smell a bad odor. Untreated foot ulcers can develop gangrene and lead to an amputation.
Do diabetic ulcers hurt?
Diabetic Foot Ulcer Symptoms
Normally a wound or sore on the skin would cause pain. But the same loss of feeling in the feet that often contributes to the development of a diabetic foot ulcer means that there’s often no pain associated with the ulcer.
What does the beginning of a foot ulcer look like?
A foot ulcer can be shallow or deep. When it starts, it looks like a red crater or dimple on the skin. If it becomes infected, it can develop drainage, pus, or a bad odor. If you have nerve damage in your feet, then you won’t notice the pain of a small stone, too tight shoes, or the formation of a foot ulcer.
What does the start of a diabetic ulcer look like?
Look for blisters, cuts, cracks, sores, redness, white spots or areas, thick calluses, discoloration, or other changes. Don’t rely on pain; even feeling more warmth or cold than usual can be a sign that you have an open wound on your skin, and it’s possible that you may feel nothing at all.
How do I know if I have a diabetic foot ulcer?
If diabetic neuropathy leads to diabetic foot ulcers, symptoms to watch out for include:
- Any changes to the skin or toenails, including cuts, blisters, calluses or sores.
- Discharge of fluid or pus.
- Foul smell.
- Skin discoloration.